Next

Encryption and Data Formatting

Back

Restart

Next

This work is licensed with a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International LicenseEndFragment

Encryption and Data Formatting

1/10

N - Z

click on each button

Special

n - z

2/10

a - m

0 - 9

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is the most common character encoding format for text data. ASCII assigns standard numeric values to letters, numerals, punctuation marks, and other characters. Encryption systems often convert ASCII to hexadecimal, decimal, or binary equivalents before the encryption operation.

A - M

UNPRINTABLE

4/10

ASCII codes fall into one of three sets: Standard ASCII printable character codes; ASCII control characters; Extended ASCII characters

Copy the ciphertext result and remeber your 4-character key.

Hex

Plaintext: Plaintext Binary:
Key:Key Binary: Encrypt
XOR Result (Binary):
Ciphertext:

To illustrate how encryption works, start by entering a 4-character plaintext message (each ASCII character converts to an 8-bit binary value). Then enter a 4-character key (which also converts to binary). Click on the Encrypt button to XOR the plaintext binary with the key binary. The ciphertext is generated in hexadecimal from the XOR result.

9/10

Boolean Expression:
X = A ⊕ B

0

0

1

XOR gate is a digital logic gate that gives a HIGH (1) true output when only one input is high or low. Exclusive means that one input is different than all of the rest. An XOR gate implements an exclusive OR; that is, a HIGH output results if one, and only one, of the inputs to the gate is HIGH (or LOW). A way to remember XOR is "one or the other but not both". The truth table illustrates the XOR gate operation. The expression uses the circled plus symbol.

XOR Gate

XOR

5/10

INPUTS

OUTPUT

Click switches on and off

1

A

B

X

3/10

Note: when entering a binary number, omit any leading zeros (0)

The quiz questions will be inserted here by the script Submit Output box to show the correct answers

Crypto analysts must be able to convert ASCII to binary, decimal, or hexadecimal.

Use the buttons to show the ASCII tables

The original message

Ciphertext: Ciphertext Binary:
Key:Key Binary: Decrypt
Plaintext (Binary):
Plaintext:

10/10

Paste or enter the ciphertext from the previous scene. Enter the same 4-character key used for encryption.

0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0

Plaintext

Key

Streaming cipher systems use the XOR operation and a key to encrypt messages one bit at a time. The message is stored as ciphertext. The ciphertext can be decrypted with the same XOR operation one bit at a time.

6/10

Ciphertext

Click to Encrypt

Click to Decrypt

Element
with Audio
HTML

Encryption

Decryption

Enter the result of the XOR operation for each message/key pair. Submit to check your results

All types of cryptographic systems use the XOR operation because of its reversibility. Reversibility means a plaintext message can be XORed with a key to create ciphertext. The ciphertext can then be XORed with the same key to get the original plaintext message.

7/10

Message

BinaryDecimalHexadecimalASCII
BinaryDecimalHexadecimalASCII
XOR Calculate Reset
BinaryDecimalHexadecimalASCII

8/10

XOR Calculator

The XOR Calculator lets you select an input type (either binary, decimal, hexadecimal, or ASCII) and a corresponding output type. NOTE: the calculator does not display leading zeroes; some ASCII characters are unprintable; ASCII assumes a 1-character input